doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115220. Hammarström A, Annandale E. A conceptual muddle: an empirical analysis of the use of 'sex' and 'gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' journals. doi:10.1136/jech-2013-202838. European Commission. Article  2004;9:41–52. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2011.04.012. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. 2014;68:224–32. doi:10.1136/jech.2010.112441. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66:512–8. 2012;66:e4. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. [67] selected their exposure variable (work in the domestic and public sphere) based on concepts of gender equality and constructed a gender equality index. 2016;14:50. doi:10.1186/s12961-016-0126-z. Our approach can be located in the context of the ‘Gendered Innovations Framework’ [46]. Department Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Achterstr. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitswissenschaften. The first evaluation was completed by CB or FG, both biometricians and trained on the job in principles of sex/gender sensitive health research. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. 2019 May;64(3):250-256. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.18-73. Get the latest research from NIH: Accessed 11 Jan 2017. As a consequence our approach was a generic one, focusing on sex/gender-related aspects but not evaluating the quality of the articles with respect to the state of the art in the specific research field. Ratner PA, Tzianetas R, Tu AW, Johnson JL, Mackay M, Buller CE, Rowlands M, Reime B. Myocardial infarction symptom recognition by the lay public: the role of gender and ethnicity. The category ‘intermediate’ was chosen if only some sex/gender aspects were addressed. Results: Soc Sci Med. Health Res Policy Syst. Sex refers to biological characteristics such as chromosomes, hormones or reproductive organs commonly associated with being male or female. Sex and gender bias refers to an inadequate representation of men and women in study samples, in research teams, or responsible research positions, as recipients of research funding or as authors of publications [8, 9]. Accessed 1 April 2016. (PDF 48 kb). 2008 Jan;51(1):13-27. doi: 10.1007/s00103-008-0415-y. 2020 Oct 19;37(5):631-636. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmaa040. A growing role for gender analysis in air pollution epidemiology. Assessment instrument: Identification of good practice examples of sex/gender sensitive health research. J Epidemiol Community Health. The instrument was filled in based on the full text without considering any additional information such as design papers or supplementary material. Accessed 14 Jun 2016. 1994;36:842–7. The fight for gender equality is an ongoing struggle for men and women throughout the world. J Epidemiol Community Health. Examples of good discussions interpreted their findings related to social and biological explanatory models or questioned the statistical methods used to detect sex/gender differences. 2016;14:75. doi:10.1186/s12961-016-0147-7. volume 15, Article number: 11 (2017) Marital status, living arrangement and mortality: does the association vary by gender? Likewise, methodological issues were addressed [63, 67, 75]. Accessed June 13 2016. Beery AK, Zucker I. Epidemiological research is often of limited significance in terms of sex/gender sensitivity. – The Huffington Post, In India and China, the two most populous nations in the world, there is significant data that shows a survival disadvantage for girls under five years of age. Correspondence to J Epidemiol Community Health. [63] critically reflected on the statistical methods used to detect differences between men and women and compared stratified analyses with analyses using statistical interactions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.062034. Garcia AM, Bartley M, Alvarez-Dardet C. Engendering epidemiology. [43] and Hammarström [49]. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Health Res Policy Syst. This study provides good practice examples of sex/gender sensitivity in epidemiological research. 1997;51:106–9. Escribà-Agüir V, Gonzalez-Galarzo MC, Barona-Vilar C, Artazcoz L. Factors related to depression during pregnancy: are there gender differences? Sex- and age-specific seasonal variations in physical activity among adults. Res Integr Peer Rev. Hernandez DC, Pressler E. Accumulation of childhood poverty on young adult overweight or obese status: race/ethnicity and gender disparities. Gender-specific analyses of the Hordaland Health Study cohort. Women who have experienced sexual or physical abuse at the hands of their partners are. 2014;9:e110786. doi:10.1136/jech.2010.128397. Kennedy SM, Koehoorn M. Exposure assessment in epidemiology: does gender matter? 2013;67:875–81. Good practice examples for the discussion section provided interpretations of their findings by drawing on possible sex/gender-related explanatory approaches or theoretical models [51, 66–68, 81, 83]. Cien Saude Colet. 2014;68:649–56. -, Zahm SH, Pottern LM, Lewis DR, Ward MH, White DW. Determining the relevance and well-founded inclusion or exclusion of sex/gender aspects and the careful epidemiological analysis is an important requirement for a more equitable provision of healthcare and preferably gender transformative [95] preventative services for women and men. 2nd ed. Gender differences in health per se are seldom given a second glance” [4]. unconscious assumptions about values, gender roles and the abilities of women and men. 2015;15:94. doi:10.1186/s12905-015-0251-9. Google Scholar. doi:10.1002/ajim.22424. doi:10.1136/jech.2009.105064. By using the slashed version we want to indicate that sex and gender are distinct concepts, while the slash stands for the potential interrelations between biological and sociocultural aspects of being a man, a woman, or a sex/gender diverse person. Privacy The assessment instrument was a generic one and thus not specific to any field of epidemiologic research or study design. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034193. The evaluation of the full texts comprised three steps. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.07.002. Article  The identified good practice examples may inspire researchers to critically reflect on the relevance of sex/gender issues of their studies and help them to translate methodological recommendations of sex/gender sensitivity into research practice. Borrell C, Muntaner C, Sola J, Artazcoz L, Puigpinos R, Benach J, Noh S. Immigration and self-reported health status by social class and gender: the importance of material deprivation, work organisation and household labour. This example highlights the clarity about the question whether effects of exposures in separated groups or differences of effect sizes across groups are to be determined that is needed for the definition of research questions and for subsequent statistical modelling. Furthermore, methodological, theoretical and political papers were excluded. sex(uality), sex work, sex ratio (of newborns). Kovess-Masfety V, Boyd A, van de Velde S, de Graaf R, Vilagut G, Haro JM, Florescu S, O'Neill S, Weinberg L, Alonso J. To avoid simple dualisms between men and women, other scholars have drawn the attention to the within-group variations at the intersections of sex/gender with other social categories, such as socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, or age [23, 24]. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.07.002. J Epidemiol Community Health. In China, girls have a. 2016;1:1–9. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. J Epidemiol Community Health. Many aspects of gender inequality are events that men will never face, but that constantly shape women’s mental health and opportunities. What are the aims of gender sensitivity and give concrete example 1 See answer bahalakayoitsyoulife bahalakayoitsyoulife Answer: Being sensitive is, very simply but, being appreciative of others' feelings. The research topics of the included articles were quite diverse. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. The fight for gender equality is an ongoing struggle for men and women throughout the world. The best example of gender equality is a Housewife. The ‘Gendered Innovations’ website [87] offers information for sex/gender sensitive methodological principles in biomedical and public health research and has recently been adopted by the EU Horizon 2020 funding scheme [88]. Keywords: doi:10.1136/jech.2005.041327. Ikeda A, Kawachi I, Iso H, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Gender difference in the association between social support and metabolic syndrome in Japan: the 'enkai' effect? J Epidemiol Community Health. doi:10.1007/s12152-011-9134-4. Gender perspectives in European research. Google Scholar. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.065391. During the last decades, sex and gender biases have been identified in various areas of biomedical and public health research, leading to compromised validity of research findings. Based on the diagnostic questions of our assessment instrument and our findings in the evaluated articles, we developed a checklist of practical steps towards sex/gender sensitivity across the stages of the research process (Table 3). Rigby JE, Dorling D. Mortality in relation to sex in the affluent world.


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